An inflation premium is the part of prevailing interest rates that results from lenders compensating for expected inflation. An inflation premium is the part of prevailing interest rates that results from lenders compensating for expected inflation by pushing nominal interest rates to higher levels.

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Inflation rate graph: Inflation rate in the Confederacy during the American Civil War. In economics and finance, an individual who lends money for repayment at a later point in time expects to be compensated for the time value of money, or not having the use of that money while it is lent.

In addition, they will want to be compensated for the risks of the money having less purchasing power when the loan is repaid. These risks are systematic risks, regulatory risks and inflationary risks. The first includes the possibility that the borrower will default or be unable to pay on the originally agreed upon terms, or that collateral backing the loan will prove to be less valuable than estimated. The second includes taxation and changes in the law which would prevent the lender from collecting on a loan or having to pay more in taxes on the amount repaid than originally estimated.

The third takes into account that the money repaid may not have as much buying power from the perspective of the lender as the money originally lent, that is inflation, and may include fluctuations in the value of the currencies involved. The inflation premium will compensate for the third risk, so investors seek this premium to compensate for the erosion in the value of their capital, due to inflation.

Actual interest rates without factoring in inflation are viewed by economists and investors as being the nominal stated interest rate minus the inflation premium. The Fisher equation in financial mathematics and economics estimates the relationship between nominal and real interest rates under inflation. In economics, this equation is used to predict nominal and real interest rate behavior. This is not a single number, as different investors have different expectations of future inflation. Since the inflation rate over the course of a loan is not known initially, volatility in inflation represents a risk to both the lender and the borrower.

Nominal rate refers to the rate before adjustment for inflation; the real rate is the nominal rate minus inflation: In finance and economics, nominal rate refers to the rate before adjustment for inflation in contrast with the real rate. The real rate is the nominal rate minus inflation. In the case of a loan, it is this real interest that the lender receives as income. Real and nominal: The relationship between real and nominal interest rates is captured by the formula. The real rate can be described more formally by the Fisher equation, which states that the real interest rate is approximately the nominal interest rate minus the inflation rate: In this analysis, the nominal rate is the stated rate, and the real rate is the rate after the expected losses due to inflation.

Since the future inflation rate can only be estimated, the ex ante and ex post before and after the fact real rates may be different; the premium paid to actual inflation may be higher or lower.

### Bond Yields and Prices

This time may be as short as a few months, or longer than 50 years. Once this time has been reached, the bondholder should receive the par value for their particular bond. The issuer of a bond has to repay the nominal amount for that bond on the maturity date. After this date, as long as all due payments have been made, the issuer will have no further obligations to the bondholders.

These dates can technically be any length of time, but debt securities with a term of less than one year are generally not designated as bonds. Instead, they are designated as money market instruments. Money market interest rates: Interest rates of one-month maturity of German banks from to Most bonds have a term of up to 30 years.

That being said, bonds have been issued with terms of 50 years or more, and historically, issues have arisen where bonds completely lack maturity dates irredeemables. In the market for United States Treasury securities, there are three categories of bond maturities:. Because bonds with long maturities necessarily have long durations, the bond prices in these situations are more sensitive to interest rate changes.

In other words, the price risk of such bonds is higher. Although this present value relationship reflects the theoretical approach to determining the value of a bond, in practice, the price is usually determined with reference to other, more liquid instruments.

## Advanced Bond Concepts: Yield and Bond Pricing

In general, coupon and par value being equal, a bond with a short time to maturity will trade at a higher value than one with a longer time to maturity. This is because the par value is discounted at a higher rate further into the future. Finally, it is important to recognize that future interest rates are uncertain, and that the discount rate is not adequately represented by a single fixed number this would be the case if an option was written on the bond in question stochastic calculus may be employed.

Where the market price of a bond is less than its face value par value , the bond is selling at a discount. Conversely, if the market price of bond is greater than its face value, the bond is selling at a premium. The yield to maturity is the discount rate which returns the market price of the bond. YTM is the internal rate of return of an investment in the bond made at the observed price. To achieve a return equal to YTM i. Formula for yield to maturity: What happens in the meantime?

## Yield to Maturity (YTM) Calculator | InvestingAnswers

Over the remaining 20 years of the bond, the annual rate earned is not Payment frequency can be annual, semi annual, quarterly, or monthly; the more frequently a bond makes coupon payments, the higher the bond price. The payment schedule of financial instruments defines the dates at which payments are made by one party to another on, for example, a bond or a derivative. It can be either customised or parameterized. Payment frequency can be annual, semi annual, quarterly, monthly, weekly, daily, or continuous.

Advanced Bond Concepts: Introduction Advanced Bond Concepts: Bond Pricing Advanced Bond Concepts: Duration Advanced Bond Concepts: Convexity Advanced Bond Concepts: You can calculate current yield using the following formula: The modified current yield formula takes into account the discount or premium at which you buy the bond, and is calculated as: Current Yield and Zero-Coupon Bonds Zero-coupon bonds have only one coupon payment, so we have to use a different calculation.

We can calculate its current yield by plugging these values into the following formula: Before revealing the equation, here are three things to keep in mind: With premium bonds , the coupon rate is greater than market interest rates. With discount bonds , the coupon rate is less than market interest rates.

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- Calculating Current Yield.

Here are the results: Calculating Yield for Callable and Puttable Bonds Callable and puttable bonds have additional yield calculations: For this particular problem, interestingly, we start with an estimate before building up to the actual answer. The formula for the approximate yield to maturity on a bond is:.

By calculating the rate an investor would earn if reinvesting every coupon at the current rate, and determining the present value of those cash flows. The summation looks like this:. As discussing this geometric series is a little heavy for a quick post here, let us note: